Verb + - er/ -or = Noun
To teach -, -teacher –
To regulate – regulator –
To lecture – lecturer, to speak – speaker, to invent – inventor , to generate – generator, to transform – transformer , to indicate – indicator, to compute – computer;
Suffixes : -ant/ -ent;
Verb + - ant/ -ent = Adjective
To excel - - excellent –
Important , efficient, distant ,evident ,confident, resent;
2.Negative Prefixes un-/im;
Questionable - unquestionable -
Material – immaterial , limited – unlimited, important – unimportant, usual – unusual, natural –unnatural, necessary – unnecessary, known – unknown , qualified – unqualified, changing – unchanging, seen -unseen , possible – impossible, perfect – imperfect personal –impersonal, mobile – immobile.
3.Put the missing words:
4. Read and translate these international words:
Electricity, civilization, economic and social progress, transformer, universal, electrometallurgy, cable, specific, machine, photocopying machine, radar, Paris, generator, battery, lamp, dynamo, indicator, nation, energy, service, laser, compact.
5. Find here Nouns and Verbs , translate them:
That electricity is clean and easily – regulated is its great advantage. The important fact is that electricity offers improved service at reduced cost. That the two scientists Lodygyn and Vablochkove were the first in Russia to work in the field of electrical engineering is well – known. |One of the main advantages of electricity is that is does not pollute the environment. |The indicator of nation development is how much electricity is consumed per capita. \What has been and is being done in environment protection cannot be measured by yesterday’s standards.
It is impossible to imagine our civilization without: economic and social
progress will be turned to the past and daily lives completely transformed.
Electrical power has become universal. |Thousands of application of electricity such as lighting, electrochemistry and electrometallurgy are longstanding and unquestionable.
With the appearance of the electrical motor, power cables replaced transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys in the, 19-th century workshops. |And in the home a whole range of various time and lab our saving appliances have become a part of our everyday lives.
Other devices are based on specific properties of electricity: electrostatics in the case of photocopying machine and electromagnetism in the case of radar and television. These applications have made electricity most widely.
The fist industrial application was in the silver workshops in Paris. The generator – a new compact source of electricity – was also developed there. The generator replaced the batteries and other devices that had been used before.
Electronic lighting came into wide use at the end of the last century with the development of the electric lamp by Thomas \Edison. |Then the transformed was invented, the first electric lines and networks were set up, dynamos and indication motors were designed.
Since the beginning of the 20th century the successful development of electricity has begun throughout the industrial world. The consumption of electricity has doubled every ten years.
Today consumption of electricity per capita is an indicator of the state of development and economic health of a nation. Electricity has replaced other sources of energy as it has been realized that is offers improved service and reduced cost.
One of the greatest advantages of electricity is that it is clean, easily – regulated and generates no byproducts. |Applications of electricity now cover all fields of human activity from house washing machines to the latest laser devices. Electricity is the efficient source of some the most recent technological advances such as the laser and electron beams. Truly electricity provides mankind with the energy of the future.
Notes to the Text
transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys – трансмиссионные валы, зубчатые колёса, ремни и блоки
time and lab our saving appliances - электроприборы, экономящие время и труд
induction motors – индукционные моторы
per capita – на человека, на душу населения
by – products – побочные продукты
truly – поистине
Answer the questions:
1 What is this text about?
2 What industrial applications of electricity do you know?
3 What home applications of electricity do you know?
4 Where was the generator developed?
5 Who invented the electric lamp?
6 Do you know who invented the dynamo?
7 Can you imagine our life without electricity? Why?
1 electricity – its nature, history and development.
2 applications of electricity cover all fields of human acticitivity.