II. Acquired
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II. Acquired

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1. What infectious diseases do you know? What are children’s inf. diseases? Tell about them.

I know such inf. diseases as: influenza, AIDS, pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, histoplasmosis, herpes virus e.t.c.

I know such children’s ID as: chicken-pox, smallpox, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, scarlet-fever, measles e.t.c.

2. What are inf. diseases caused by?

Inf. diseases are caused by pathogenic bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites or other microorganisms, that infect our body

3. What is the classification of inf. disease according to the way of infectioning?

According to the way of infectioning we can classify diseases as:

1) Infections, that panatrate with blood (e.g. blood transfusion)

2) Inf., that panatrate trough restiratory tract (e.g. air-droppled way)

3) Inf., that panatrate through garsto-untestinal tract (e.g. elimentary way)

4) Inf., that panatrate from mother to child

5) Inf., that panatrate by sexual way

4. What is immunity? What types of immunity do you know? How to get them?

Immunity – is ability of the body to fight with infections. It is the natural system of preventing the illness.

I. Natural

1.active(genetic) – present during whole life

2.passive(temporary) – present during pregnancy, lactation

II. Acquired

1.Natural – acquired after diseases

2.Artifical – acquired with inoculation

5. What is influenza, its cause, way of transm., symptoms and complications?

Influenza – is an infectious disease, caused by virus of inifluenza

Cause: virus of influenza

Way of transm.: air-droppled

Symptoms: fever, weakness, sweating, fatigue, prostration, general pain, cough, t’,, coryza, inlarged

lymphatic nodes.

Complications: bronchitis, otitis, sinusitis, cervical lymphadenitis

Treatment: antiviral medicaments

6. What is Chicken-pox, ……..

Chicken-pox – is a highly contagious, hard-treatening children’s inf. disease saused by varicella zoster virus.

Cause: varicella zoster virus (herpes 3 type)

Way of transm.: air-droppled way

Symptoms:Prodromal: fever, weakness, sweating, fatigue, prostration, t’, chillysensation, headache, inlarged l.n.

Active: macule → papule → vesicule → scab - on the skin. (around eyes, inside mouth, genital)

Complications: sepsis, streptococcal inf., pneumonia, scarlet fever

Treatment: antyherpes drugs, oinments

7. What is diphtheria ……

Diphtheria – is an acute, contagious, bacterial children’s disease, characterized by formation of a fibrinous pseudomembranes usually of the respiratory tract.

Cause: Corinobacterium diphterie

Way of transm.: air-droppled

Symptoms:Prodromal: fever, weakness, sweating, fatigue, prostration,t’, inlarged l.n.

Active: bullneck, hard toxemia, fibroses pdeudomembrames (throat, mouth, nose, eyes, vagina)

Complications: miocarditis, paralysis, kidney failure, cardiovascular failure

Treatment: antibiotics, antitoxins

8. What is TB, its forms?

TB – is a common, in many cases letal, inf. disease caused by various types of mycobacterium tuberculosis. It attacks the lungs, and can also attack other organs.

It can be: 1. Active It can be: 1. Pulonary (primary TB pneumonia, TB pleurisy, cavitary, military, laryngeal TB)

2. Latent 2. Extrapulmonary

9. Tell about clinical picture of TB, treatment?

Symptoms: t’, fatigue, night sweats, slight cough, loss of appetite, shotness of breath, granulommas of lengths.

Treatment: Very difficult, and continues from 6 to 24 months. Treats by long courses of administration of multiple antibiotics, usually rifompicin and isonazid.


10. What is AIDS, it cause?

AIDS – is Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome, is very dangerous virus infectious disease, that attacks the immune system.

It is caused by 2 types of virus: HIV-1 and HIV-2 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

11. When was AIDS first diagnosed? When was its cause found and whom by?

AIDS was diagnosed in 1981, the cause was found in 1983 in France and 1984 in USA by Luc Montagneir and Robert Gallo

12. What does HIV afflict in the human body?

HIV attacks all cells, that have special CD4-protein-antigen receptors :

1) T4-helper-lymphocytes

2) Macrophages

3) Neural tissue cells

13. How many periods are there in the AIDS flow, describe them?

There are 6 periods in AIDS flow:

1) Infection – virus gets into body

2) Incubation – (lasts 2-3 weeks)

3) Acute AIDS – symptoms: allergy, cold, inflammations – (2-3 weeks)

4) Latent period – (lasts to 15 years, usually 3-5)

5) pre-AIDS – symptoms: cough, fever, night sweats, lymphoadenopathy.

6) AIDS itself – person slowly dies from opportunistic diseases (fungal infections, histoplasmosis, cryptococal inf., toxoplasmosis, herpesvirus, retinitis, mycobacterial inf, oncology e.t.c)

14. What are the ways of getting AIDS virus into human body?

1)by sex

2)by blood

3)from mother to child (through placenta, delivery water, milk)

15. What rules should one follow to reduce the risk of infection with AIDS?

1) use condoms

2) use sterile instruments

3) check your sexual partner

4) check donated blood and blood preparations

5)Pregnant women must do retro-antiviral therapy.

16. What do you know about AIDS treatment?

AIDS is incurable disease, but to reduse a manifestation of opportunistic diseases person should have HAART (highly active antirethrovokal therapy)

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